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Adam Thoroughgood

Male 1604 - 1640  (35 years)


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  • Name Adam Thoroughgood 
    Born 15 Jul 1604  Grimston, Norfolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 27 Apr 1640  Elizabeth City, VA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID P-108077169  SheldonTurner
    Last Modified 14 Feb 2011 

    Father William Thoroughgood,   b. 1560, Grimston, Norfolk Cty., England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown 
    Relationship Natural 
    Mother Ann EDWARDS,   b. 1558, Grimston, Norfolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1620, Grimston, Norfolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 62 years) 
    Relationship Natural 
    Family ID F25  Group Sheet

    Family Sarah Offley,   b. 16 Apr 1609,   d. Aug 1657  (Age 48 years) 
    Married 18 Jul 1627  St. Anne's, Blackfriars, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
    +1. Ann (Chandler) Thoroughgood,   b. 1630,   d. 1697  (Age 67 years)
     2. Sarah Thoroughgood,   b. 1631,   d. 9 Oct 1658, Charles Co., MD Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 27 years)
     3. Elizabeth Thoroughgood,   b. 1633,   d. Yes, date unknown
     4. Adam Thoroughgood,   b. 1638,   d. Yes, date unknown
    Family ID F24  Group Sheet

  • Notes 
    • One of the earliest residents of Virginia Beach was Adam Thoroughgood, who at age 18, had left the home of his prominent family at Kings Lynn, Norfolkshire, England, to seek adventure and fortune in the colony of Virginia. The topography reminded young Thoroughgood so much of his homeland that he gave the river and her shores the name Lynnhaven. Thoroughgood soon became the leading citizen in Lynnhaven Parish, and was an elected member of the House of Burgess, the Governors Council, and a Justice of the Court.
      In 1635 Captain Thoroughgood (he held a commission in the county militia) earned a land grant of 5,350 acres in colonial Virginia Beach for having persuaded 105 people to settle in Virginia. Interestingly, included in these 105 immigrants was Augustine Warner, progenitor of George Washington, and generations later Robert E. Lee. During the following year, 1636, Thouroughgood built a modest but substantial brick home for his family on the western branch of the Lynnhaven River. This house, still standing and fully restored, is believed to be the oldest surviving brick home in America.
      Thoroughgood died suddenly at the age of 36, but his character and ideals had been embedded in the land and people of Lynnhaven. During the ensuing years the Lynnhaven area began to flourish under the leadership of prominent families such as the Keeling, Cornicks, Woodhouses and Strattons.
      Because of the abundance of fish in the Chesapeake Bay area, seine hauling was one of the early profitable vocations taken up by the residents along the shores of the lynnhaven. At this stage in history the only entrance into the Lynnhaven River from the Chesapeake Bay was by way of Little Creek and was reported to be a tedious journey of three miles. It did not take the fishermen long to realize that a shorter, faster route to the bay would greatly enhance the profits of those associated with the fishing industry. Adam Keeling, whose plantation, "Ye Dudlies," was situated right at the mouth of the Lynnhaven River, organized a group of people to work out a solution for this situation.
      At the mouth of the Lynnhaven there was a huge sandbar about a half-mile wide, separating the River and Bay. Keeling's group dug a trench across the sandbar wide enough to permit the passage of a canoe. Almost immediately after this feat was accomplished, a severe storm out of the northeast caused unusually high tides in the Chesapeake to rush through the ditch into the Lynnhaven River. The force of the tides enlarged the ditch to the size of an inlet, and today this inlet is known as the famous Lynnhaven Inlet.
      www.rso.navy.mil/Patrol%20Craft/Info%20files/VA%20BEACH%20history.htm <http://www.rso.navy.mil/Patrol%20Craft/Info%20files/VA%20BEACH%20history.htm>
      www.vabeach.com/history.php

      http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0011734.htm
      Second Generation

      2. Adam2 Thorowgood (I)(Capt.) (William1) was born in Grimston, Norfolk, England about 1603. Based on baptism date of 1603 at St. Botolph's, Parish of Grimston, Norfolk. (Adventures of Purse & Person, p. 607) Adam died about 1640 in Lower Norfolk Co., VA. Adam may have been at Jamestown, VA when he died. All the paperwork was at Lower Norfolk Co.

      He married Sarah Offley in Blackfriars, London, England, July 18, 1627. St. Anne's Church.

      Sarah was born in England about 1609. Based on her baptism April 16, 1609 at St. Benet, Gracechurch, London. Sarah was the daughter of Robert Offley and Anne Osburn.

      Sarah died 1657 in Lower Norfolk Co., VA, at 48 years of age. Sarah was 18 years old when she came to the Virginia colony. Court records show her bringing suit on several occasions: swearing out a warrant on Goody Layton for wronging her deceased husband with a "Pish;" two men for making insulting remarks to her daughter, Sarah in 1644; and just days before her death she took a tenant farmer to court for improper planting of an orchard and "ground made waste of." She was described as "beautiful and high-spirited" with a "backbone of steel and an indomitable will." (Norfolk Co. VA GenWeb, Thorowgood Family by Carol Middleton; dates-Meyer & Dorman, Adventurers of Purse & Person, Dietz Press, Richmond, VA 1987, pp.459, 607)

      He made a will in Lower Norfolk Co., VA, February 17, 1639. Adam's will was probated in Lower Norfolk Co., VA, April 27, 1640. Adam Thorowgood came to Virginia on the "Charles" in 1621. He was at Elizabeth City for the 1623-4 census and is shown aged 18 for the 1624-5 census, a servant in the muster of Edward Waters. By 1626, he is known as Captain Adam Thorogood, Gentleman of Kiquotan, when he purchased 150 acres on the north side of Hampton Roads. He patented 400 acres in Elizabeth City County on March 21, 1634-5 and 5,350 acres at Lynnhaven, Lower Norfolk County in 1637. This land at Lynnhaven on the south side of Hampton Roads was due him for the personal adventure of himself and his wife and the transportation of 105 persons between 1628 and 1634 (see names in introduction).

      He was appointed commissioner for holding monthly court at Elizabeth City on March 7, 1728-9, served as a Burgess for Elizabeth City in 1629 and 1630-1632. He was a member of the first court for Lower Norfolk County May 15, 1637, vestryman of Lynnhaven Parish and the first church of Lynnhaven Parish was built in 1639 on his land at Church Point.

      His will named his wife, Sarah, son Adam and daughters Ann, Sarah and Elizabeth. He asked that he be buried at the parish church at Lynnhaven.
      Captain Adam Thoroughgood emigrated from his native home in Grimston, County Norfolk, England to Virginia in 1621, eventually settling at Kicotan, Elizabeth City County. He was a member of the Virginia Council and a Burgess for Elizabeth City County. He died in Virginia in 1640, leaving issue
      Adam Thoroughgood (1604-1640) was a colonist and community leader in the Virginia Colony <http://www.answers.com/topic/colony-and-dominion-of-virginia> who helped settle the area of South Hampton Roads <http://www.answers.com/topic/south-hampton-roads> known in contemporary times as the independent city <http://www.answers.com/topic/independent-city> of Virginia Beach, Virginia <http://www.answers.com/topic/virginia-beach-virginia>.
      Young Thoroughgood was from a prominent family in King's Lynn, Norfolkshire, England. At the age of 18, he became an indentured servant <http://www.answers.com/topic/indentured-servant> to pay for passage to the Virginia Colony, a project of the Virginia Company of London <http://www.answers.com/topic/london-company> at the time. Around 1622, he settled in an area south of the Chesapeake Bay <http://www.answers.com/topic/chesapeake-bay> and a few miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean <http://www.answers.com/topic/atlantic-ocean>. This area had been passed by when the earlier settlements such as Jamestown <http://www.answers.com/topic/jamestown-virginia> where established beginning in 1607 in favor of locations further inland which would be less susceptible to attacks by other European forces, such as the Spanish.
      Serving his period of indenture, he earned his freedom and became a leading citizen of the area. He was elected to the
      (Research):The house of Capt Adam Thoroughgood built by him between 1636 and 1640 is believed to be the oldest dwelling now standing in Virginia
      Adam2 Thorowgood (I)(Capt.) <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017453.htm> (William1 <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017453.htm>) was born in Grimston, Norfolk, England about 1603. Based on baptism date of 1603 at St. Botolph's, Parish of Grimston, Norfolk. (Adventures of Purse & Person, p. 607) Adam died about 1640 in Lower Norfolk Co., VA. Adam may have been at Jamestown, VA when he died. All the paperwork was at Lower Norfolk Co.
      He married Sarah Offley in Blackfriars, London, England, July 18, 1627. St. Anne's Church.
      Sarah was born in England about 1609. Based on her baptism April 16, 1609 at St. Benet, Gracechurch, London. Sarah was the daughter of Robert Offley and Anne Osburn.
      Sarah died 1657 in Lower Norfolk Co., VA, at 48 years of age. Sarah was 18 years old when she came to the Virginia colony. Court records show her bringing suit on several occasions: swearing out a warrant on Goody Layton for wronging her deceased husband with a "Pish;" two men for making insulting remarks to her daughter, Sarah in 1644; and just days before her death she took a tenant farmer to court for improper planting of an orchard and "ground made waste of." She was described as "beautiful and high-spirited" with a "backbone of steel and an indomitable will." (Norfolk Co. VA GenWeb, Thorowgood Family by Carol Middleton; dates-Meyer & Dorman, Adventurers of Purse & Person, Dietz Press, Richmond, VA 1987, pp.459, 607)
      He made a will in Lower Norfolk Co., VA, February 17, 1639. Adam's will was probated in Lower Norfolk Co., VA, April 27, 1640. Adam Thorowgood came to Virginia on the "Charles" in 1621. He was at Elizabeth City for the 1623-4 census and is shown aged 18 for the 1624-5 census, a servant in the muster of Edward Waters. By 1626, he is known as Captain Adam Thorogood, Gentleman of Kiquotan, when he purchased 150 acres on the north side of Hampton Roads. He patented 400 acres in Elizabeth City County on March 21, 1634-5 and 5,350 acres at Lynnhaven, Lower Norfolk County in 1637. This land at Lynnhaven on the south side of Hampton Roads was due him for the personal adventure of himself and his wife and the transportation of 105 persons between 1628 and 1634 (see names in introduction).
      He was appointed commissioner for holding monthly court at Elizabeth City on March 7, 1728-9, served as a Burgess for Elizabeth City in 1629 and 1630-1632. He was a member of the first court for Lower Norfolk County May 15, 1637, vestryman of Lynnhaven Parish and the first church of Lynnhaven Parish was built in 1639 on his land at Church Point.
      His will named his wife, Sarah, son Adam and daughters Ann, Sarah and Elizabeth. He asked that he be buried at the parish church at Lynnhaven.
      Adam Thorowgood(I)(Capt.) and Sarah Offley had the following children:
      + 4 i. Ann3 Thorowgood <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017455.htm> was born October 30, 1630.
      5 ii. Sarah Thorowgood was born 1631. Sarah died October 9, 1658 in Charles Co., MD, at 27 years of age. She was buried on October 9, 1658. She married Simon Overzee.
      Simon died 1660. He was a merchant of Lower Norfolk County and owner of the ship "Virginia Merchant." He moved to Charles Co. MD, where he owned land with his brother-in-law, Job Chandler, at Port Tobacco, and another tract called "Rotterdam." After Sarah's death, he married Elizabeth Willoughby, who was administrator of his estate. According to Purse & Person, Sarah died in childbirth. She had at least one child when the family moved to Maryland and the one born in 1658, none living to maturity. (Purse & Person, p. 611)
      + 6 iii. Elizabeth Thorowgood <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0011736.htm> was born 1633.
      + 7 iv. Adam Thorowgood(II)(Lt. Col.) <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0011716.htm> was born after 1638.
      www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0011734.htm#i11734 <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0011734.htm#i11734>
      William1 Thorowgood was born in Norfolk, England May 12, 1579. William died May 16, 1635 in Norwich, Norfolk, England, at 56 years of age. Probate May 26, 1625 at Norwich.
      He married three times. He married Anne Edwards. He married Alice Holbeck (widow). He married Mary Dodge (widow). William was Vicar at St. Botolph, Grimston, Norfolk County. He lived at Grimstone, County Norfolk, and was commissary to the Bishop of Norfolk. (Purse & Person p. 607; dob, children-Vernon L. Skinner research of Parish Register, Felstead, Co. Essex; Harlaien Society, Miscellaneous Essex Pedigrees; Harlaien Society, Visitation of Norfolk 1664; Harlaien Society, Visitation of Hertfordshire; Norfolk Families; Baltimore Sun 7/21, 7/28, 10/13, 10/20, 10/31 & 11/3/1907; Harrison, Waples & Allied Families)
      William and Anne Edwards had children:
      Sir Edward Thorogood Sir John Thorogood m. Frances Meautys Thomas Thorogood m. Ann Wyndham Edmund Thorogood m. Frances Smith William Thorogood m. Mary Mordant Thorogood d. 1630 Siege of Brenda Adam Thorogood b. 1602 d. 1642 Frances Thorogood m. Robert Griffith in 1611
      William and Mary, widow of ___ Dodge, had a son: Robert Thorogood d. 1687/8 m. Anne Hewke
      William and Alice, widow of ___ Holbeck
      Adam is called his 7th son in "Purse & Person." There is NO proof that Ann, wife of Thomas Keeling, is William's daughter; this relationship is purely speculative based on her naming sons Adam and Thorowgood Keeling. Naming one son for a prominent friend is one thing, naming two sons? Ann's descendants are shown here as theory in hopes that someone may find more conclusive information that would shed some light on her surname. It also provides a research aid as her descendants married those of Adam Thorowgood.
      William Thorowgood and Anne Edwards had the following children:
      + 2 i. Adam2 Thorowgood (I)(Capt.) <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0011734.htm> was born about 1603.
      + 3 ii. Ann (Thorowgood) <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017617.htm> was born about 1618.
      Ann3 Thorowgood <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0011734.htm> (Adam2 <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0011734.htm>, William1 <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017453.htm>) was born in Lower Norfolk Co., VA October 30, 1630. Ann died after March, 1703. (date when she was named in the will of her son-in-law, William Dent)
      She married twice. She married Job Chandler before May 28, 1649. Job died about 1660 in Charles Co., MD. He made a will in Charles Co., MD, August 24, 1659. Job's will was probated in Charles Co., MD, March 7, 1660. He was a Burgess for Lower Norfolk Co., VA in 1649 and Justice in the Commission March 24, 1650-1 and sworn Sheriff March 7, 1650-1. He went to Maryland by August 1, 1651, when he was commissioned Receiver General. He was a member of the Parliamentary Commission in 1652-3, defender of Lord Baltimore against the Puritan opposition, elected to the Lower House of the Maryland Assembly from St. Mary's County in 1654, which he declined because of his oath to Lord Baltimore. He was elected to the Upper House in 1658 but did not attend the session. He was justice of the Provincial Court 1651-53 and 1657-59. In 1652 he received 800 acres for the transportation of himself, wife Ann, daughter Ann, and five servants in 1651 and before.
      His will left to his wife Ann, children Ann, William and Richard, and brother-in-law Simon Overzee. He confirmed a gift of a Negro man tohis daughter Ann "by her grandmother, Sarah Yardley." (Purse & Person, p. 609-610)
      She married Gerard Fowke (Col.) about 1661. Gerard was born 1606. Gerard was the son of Roger Fowke and Ann Bayley. Gerard died 1669 in Charles Co., MD, at 63 years of age. Upon Gerard's death, his estate was administered in Charles Co., MD, October 30, 1669. He was a Burgess for Westmoreland County 1663-1665 and then moved to Charles County, Maryland. He was a member of the Assembly from Charles County in 1666. Ann was granted administration of his estate. (Purse & Person, p. 610; his parents-Bob Thorowgood, ghote)
      Ann Thorowgood and Job Chandler had the following children:
      + 16 i. William4 Chandler <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017464.htm>.
      17 ii. Richard Chandler. Richard died August 13, 1697 in Charles Co., MD. (Bob Thorowgood) He married Elizabeth Burdett.
      18 iii. Anne Chandler was born about 1650.
      Ann Thorowgood and Gerard Fowke(Col.) had the following children:
      19 iv. Adam Fowke was born about 1661. He died in infancy.
      + 20 v. Gerard Fowke(Jr.) <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017468.htm> was born July 15, 1662.
      + 21 vi. Mary Fowke <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017469.htm> was born 1667.
      + 22 vii. Elizabeth Fowke <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017470.htm> was born 1668.
      Elizabeth4 Fowke <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017455.htm> (Ann3 Thorowgood <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017455.htm>, Adam2 <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0011734.htm>, William1 <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017453.htm>) was born in Charles Co., MD 1668. Elizabeth died after October 2, 1702 in Charles Co., MD, at approximately 34 years of age.
      She married William Dent in Charles Co., MD, February 8, 1684. Old Durham Episcopal Church.
      William was born 1660. William was the son of Thomas Dent and Rebecca Wilkinson. William died about 1705 in Charles Co., MD. William named his wife Elizabeth in his will and left his son, George, the plantation at Port Tobacco. He made a codicil on March 1, 1703 and made provision for Mrs. Anne Fowke, mother of my wife Elizabeth. He married second Sarah Brooke. (Purse & Person, p. 615) Elizabeth died between October, 1702 and March, 1703, when she was named in her husband's will and when he made a codicil to that will. (Purse & Person, p. 615)
      Elizabeth Fowke and William Dent had the following children:
      78 i. Thomas5 Dent was born in Portobacco, St. Marys Co., MD November 15, 1685. Thomas died 1725 in Charles Co., MD, at 39 years of age. He married Anne Bayne 1705. Anne died 1725. He was a planter of Charles Co., MD, Clerk of Prince George's Co., MD 1702-1708, Justice of Charles Co. 1706-1711, Sheriff 1711-1714, Captain of Militia and member of the Lower House of the Maryland Assembly fro Charles County from 1715-1718. He was committed to debtor's prison in 1722 for gambling debts. (Purse & Person, p. 615)
      79 ii. Elizabeth Dent was born in Portobacco, St. Marys Co., MD about 1686. Elizabeth died 1699 at 13 years of age. (Purse & Person, p. 615)
      80 iii. William Dent(Jr.) was born in Portobacco, St. Marys Co., MD December 13, 1687. William died November 18, 1695 at 7 years of age.
      81 iv. Gerard Dent was born in Nanjemoy, Charles Co., MD February 3, 1688. He was baptized February 3, 1688-9. (Purse & Person, p. 616)
      + 82 v. George Dent(Col.) <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017521.htm> was born September 27, 1690.
      83 vi. Anne Dent was born in MD March, 1692.
      + 84 vii. Peter Dent <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017524.htm> was born about 1694.
      85 viii. Philip Dent was born 1695.
      «tab»+ 86 ix. Elizabeth Dent <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017526.htm> was born about 1697.
      «tab»Elizabeth5 Dent <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017470.htm> (Elizabeth4 Fowke <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017470.htm>, Ann3 Thorowgood <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017455.htm>, Adam2 <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0011734.htm>, William1 <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/d0/i0017453.htm>) was born in Portobacco, St. Marys Co., MD about 1697. Elizabeth died 1760 in Charles Co., MD, at 63 years of age. Buried at Laurel Branch Plantation, Charles Co., MD. (Bob Thorowgood, ghote)
      She married Richard Tarvin in Charles Co., MD, 1719. Richard was the son of George Tarvin and Martha(wife of George Tarvin). Richard died 1742 in Charles Co., MD. (his parents-Bob Thorowgood, ghote) (children-Bill Wilkins)
      Elizabeth Dent and Richard Tarvin had the following children:
      www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/index.htm#toc <http://www.esva.net/ghotes/thorowgd/index.htm#toc> go back here excellent pages
      In 1636, less than three decades after the settling of Jamestown, New Norfolk was formed from Elizabeth City County, one of the nine original shires of the Colony of Virginia. In 1637, New Norfolk was divided into Lower Norfolk County and Upper Norfolk County. Lower Norfolk County encompasses the area that is now the cities of Chesapeake, Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach. Lower Norfolk County's first court was held on May 15, 1637, and was presided over by Captain Adam Thoroughgood.
      n History of Lower Tidewater Virginia Rogers Dey Whichard writes a brief account of the first two generations of Thoroughgood descendants and the interesting seventeenth
      century house which bears the Thoroughgood name. Adam Thoroughgood died in 1640, at the age of thirty-five, and his will was probated on April 27, 1640, in the Quarter Court at James City instead of in the inferior Lower Norfolk
      County Court as was customary. This raises a point that he may have died in Jamestown while attending a Council session. In view of his importance as a Council member, probate in the Quarter Court (which was the Council) would
      have been perfectly natural. Sarah Thoroughgood, his wife, was named executrix in his will and inherited, among other things, the Manor House Plantation for life. His son Adam inherited the rest of his father's houses and lands in Virginia. The Manor House Plantation was to go to his son Adam on the death of Sarah.
      Adam Thoroughgood also bequeathed 1,000 pounds of tobacco to the Lynnhaven Parish Church to buy "some necessary and decent ornaments," and directed that he be buried in the churchyard at Church Point beside some of his children already interred there. Captain Thomas Willoughby and Henry Sewell were designated as
      "overseers" of the execution of his will in Virgina. Sarah Thoroughgood already had remarried prior to April 15, 1641. The widow's new husband was Captain John Gookin,
      the son of Daniel Gookin of the plantation at Marie's Mount, near Newport News. Probably was a result of having married the influential widow, Captain Gookin assumed positionin the comunity and soon became commander and presiding justice of
      Lower Norfolk County. Gookin died in 1643. His widow was appointed administratrix of his estate. However, the widow Sarah apparently was not inconsolable for very long; in 1647, she married Colonel Francis Yeardley, son of the former Governor. Although Colonel Yeardley had extensive land holdings on the Eastern Shore, he, like the late Captain Gookin, came to reside at the Thoroughgood's Manor
      House Plantation with Sarah.
      Sara's eldest son, Adam Thoroughgood found himself in the midst of a complicated family relationship. When he reached manhood about 1646, he married Frances, the daughter of Argoll Yeardley and granddaughter of the former colonial
      governor, Sir George Yeardley. His stepfather Colonel Francis Yeardley was his wife's uncle. Colonel Yeardley died in 1655, and two years later in August, 1657, the thrice-widowed Sarah died. At her death Mistress Thoroughgood Gookin Yeardley requested that she be buried next to her second hiusband Captain John Gookin. She also requested that her best diamond necklace be sold in England to pay for six diamond rings [probably mourning rings] and two black tombstones as was indicated in a receipt for and agreement to sell the necklace executed by Nicholas Trott,
      merchant on February 1, 1658. Her armorial tombstone was still visible at Church Point as late as 1819 when its inscription was published in a Richmond newspaper.
      Many stories are told about Mistress Sarah. It is said that at a Lower Noroflk Court held at William Shipp's on August 3, 1640, the wife of a vestryman made insuations as to sharp busienss practices on the part of the late Captain
      Thoroughgood, at which the widow Sarah exclaimed, "Why, Goody Layton, could you never get yours?" (referring to a cancelled note which had been paid.) Goody Layton flounced around and cried, "Pish!" To which Mistress Sarah replied,
      "You must not think to put off with a `pish!' for if you have wronged him you must answer for it, for though he is dead I am here in his behalf to right him." Goody Layton was ordered by the court to ask Mistress Sarah's forgiveness on her knees, both in court and the following Sunday in the Parish Church at Lynnhaven. Four years later on October 8, 1644, two excessively exuberant young men were tried in Quarter Court at James City for making insulting remarks concerning the late Captain's daugher, Sarah. One of them was sentenced to receive fifty lashes on his bare back and to ask forgiveness of the widow Sarah in the Lynnhaven Parish Church, as well as pay her court costs.
      Meantime, Sarah's son, Adam Thoroughgood, who came to be known as "Colonel," had raised quite a family of his own: Argoll, John, Adam III, Francis, Robert and Rose. Upon his mother's death in 1657, he finally came into his complete inheritance and undoubtably moved his large family into the Manor House Plantation which his mother Sarah had occupied. The house, in which he had lived since his marriage, may
      well have been the Adam Thoroughgood House still standing today. Whe the "Colonel" made his will in 1679, he provided for his wife, as his father had done, by leaving her the Manor Hopuse Plantation and 600 acres for life. Upon her
      death the plantation wuld go to his eldest son, Argoll. The remainder of his land and houses were to be divided in equal parts, one for each of the sons according to their choice in order of seniority. Colonel Adam Thoroughgood died in 1685/6.
      The Manor House Plantation, built by Adam Thoroughgood --by 1639 -- and inherited by his son Adam and by the latters eldest son Argoll, is not the present day Adam Thoroughgood House. The Thoroughgood House was probably built by "Colonel" Adam Thoroughgood at the time of his marriage, about 1646 or en later. He probably lived there while waiting to take possesion of the Manor House
      Plantation after his mother Sarah Thoroughgood Gookin Yeardley died. Similarly, Argoll Thoroughgod did not inherit the Manor House Plantation until his mother, Frances, died. Once Argoll inherited the Manor House Plantation, his former residence, the Adam Thoroughgood House, was chosen by his younger brother, John.
      It is difficult to say just when the existing Thoroughgood House was built. Many researchers have dated it btween 1636-40 on the assumption that it was the Manor House. However, Dr. Whichard states that it is clearly not the Manor House and a more accurate date would be around 1660 or earlier. The east front wall and both gables of the present day Thoroughgood House are of English bond construction while the west wall is of Flemish bond, which points to a date around the 1660's. The west wall was probably remodleled or reconstructed at a later date. A brick in the west wall bears the inscription "Ad.T.," which tends to indicate that the remodeling was done by Colonel Adam Thoroughgood. The use of the above initials, instead
      of simply "A.T.," was probably used to distinguish between Adam and Argoll Thoroughgood. The house was acquired by the Adam Thoroughgood House Foundation, headed by Henry Clay Hofheimer II, and was restored under the direction of Finlay
      F. Ferguson, Jr., an architect formerly associated with Colonial Williamsburg, Incorporated. An interesting feature uncovered during the restoration was the medieval type of leaded diamond-panel casement windows which had been replaced by Georgian frames. Another medieval feature of the house was the lack of a central hall: the entrance went directly into the larger of the two downstairs rooms. The
      addition of a partition parallel to the original inner wall remodeled the downstairs into two equal size rooms, with a central hall between.


      TERCENTENARY OF ADAM THOROUGHGOOD
      1621 1921
      An Address Delivered By

      Rt. Rev. Beverly Dandridge Tucker, D. D., L. L. D.
      Bishop of the Diocese of Southern Virginia

      At the Thoroughgood House, Old Lynnhaven Farms, April, 1921

      I was staying, a few years ago, at the Deanery of Westminster Abbey. Sitting in the library of that wonderful old house, whose associations are interwoven with so much of English history, I asked my good friend, the Dean, "How old is the Deanery?" And he answered, "This room is very modern, it only goes back to the time of Elizabeth." WHat is modern in England may belong to antiquity in America. And so we cannot help feeling, as we come to this house, simple in comparison with the stately homes of England, yet in its line and structure taking us back to the homes of our fathers beyond the seas, that we are in touch with all the past of Virginia, whose first settlement we commemorate this morning.
      How long this house has stood we cannot exactly tell. It is just three hundred years ago, this year, that one Adam Thoroughgood, a youth of eighteen years, came as a gentleman adventurer in the Ship Charles to this extension of old England.
      He was the son of William Thoroughgood, commissary of the Bishop of Norwich and the great, great grandson of John Thooughgood of Chelston Temple in Hertfordshire. His brother was Sir John Thoroughgood, knighted by Charles the
      First, and a gentleman in waiting of Charles the Second. The young Adam settled first in Kicoctan, which is Hampton, where he patented two hundred acres of land. In 1634 he moved to Lynnhaven Bay, and it was probably shortly aftrwards that this house was built. He acquired by patent 5250 acres, bounded on the north by Chesapeake Bay (in the present Princess Anne County), "granted unto him at the especial recommendation of him from their Lordshipps and others of His Ma'ties most Hon'ble privie Counsell to the Governor and Counsell of the State of Virginia and also due for the importation of one hundred and five persons." It was this procuring the immigration of a large number of desirable additions to the population of the colony that gave to Adam Thoroughgood his leading position in Virginia. Among the names of the new colonists are Augustine Warner, who built Warner Hall in Gloucester, Adam and Thomas Thoroughgood, Kinsmen, Francis Newton, Thomas Keeling, William Atkins, Edward Parish, James Willson, George Whitehead and Daniel Hatton.
      The ships which brought them were The Hopewell, which gave the name of the estate by City Point; The Merchant's Hope, which is the name of the church in Prince George's built about 1660; The Truelove, The Hope, The Africa, The
      Cristopher and Mary, The Ark, The Middleton, The Bonadventure, The William and Dorothy, The John and Dorothy. The "importation " by Adam Thoroughgood of Augustine Warner gave to America and the world, George Washington, who as his great, great grandson, and Robert E. Lee, a later descendant


      Two lustrous names which linked together
      seem
      As priceless jewels linked by virgin gold,--
      Two stars that blend in one transcendant
      gleam
      To deck the firmament of fame,--and hold
      The torch to light the path, which they must
      tread
      Who would unveiled the face of glory see,--
      For high we find, on scrolls of noblest dead,
      Virginia's sons, her Washington and Lee!


      He was Commissioner and Burgess again in 1630. He was member of the Council in 1637, and Presiding Justice ofthe County Court of Lower Norfolk. He became before hisdeath in 1640 the leading citizen of Lower Norfolk, which is now Princess Anne.
      He left, besides his widow, one son, Adam, and threedaughters, Ann, Sarah and Elizabeth.
      The widow was not inconsolable, for in less than a year she married Captain John Gookin, a Burgess, and later Colonel Francis Yeardley.
      In 1641, an inventory of the things reserved for Mrs. Thoroughood's chamber was presented in court. She evidently wanted what Adam Thoroughgood had left her. Here is the inventry: Imprimis, one bed, with blankets, rug and the furniture thereunto, two pairs of sheets and pillow cases; one table with carpet, table cloths and napkins, and knives and forks, two (illegible), one linen, one woolen, two
      chairs, six stools, six pictures hanging in the chamber, one pewter basin and ewer, one warming pan, one pair of andirons in the chimney, one pair of tongs, one chair of wicker for a child. Plate for the cupboard, one saltcellar, one bowl, one tankard, one wine cup, one dozen spoons, (which I claim as a gift exprest in the inventory).
      The above mentioned are conceived to be a fit allowance for furnishing Mrs. Gookin's chamber, the said Mrs. Gookin being the relict and widow of Captain Adam Thoroughgood, deceased.
      The inventory is witnessed by Richard Lee.
      The widow not only held on to "the things" that were coming to her, but when she died she claimed all her husbands. Her epitaph is on the tomb in the old Lynnhaven churchyard, now under water. It is as follows:

      Here lieth ye the body of Captain
      John Gookin and also ye body of Mrs.
      Sarah Yeardley, who was the wife to
      Capt. Adam Thoroughgood first, Capt.
      John Gookin & Collonell Francis
      Yeardley, who deceased August 1657."


      Adam Thoroughgood, a son of the first marriage, married Frances, daughter of Argall Yeardley of Northampton, son of Sir George Yeardley. Their son, Argall married Ann Church. Their son Argall, Jr., married Elizabeth Keeling and their daughter, Elizabeth, married James Nimmo, of Shenstone Green, not far from here, and their son, William, married Elizabeth, daughter of William Nimmo, also of Shenstone
      Green. The other children of Adam Thoroughgood were: Colonel John, Justice of Princess Anne, who married Margaret Lawson. They had two children, Anthony and John. Colonel Adam, Justice and Burgess, who married Mary Mosely.
      Robert, William, Francis. There are not many descendants who bear the Thoroughgood name, but most of the families in Princess Anne and many in Norfolk trace back to this first leading citizen in what was Lower Norfolk, in whose home we have gathered today, by the kindly courtesy of the present owners, who have done so much for its preservation.
      We do honour to this man who came to Virginia three centuries ago, in order to help transplant the traditions, the ideals and the religion of old England in this new
      world, not because he stands out as a man of high achievement. It may be noted, however, that though he was only thirty-eight when he died, his name and his memory have come down through the three centuries of American history.
      He lived here, in this house and in this region, the simple life of a plain English gentleman. He stands rather as a type of those first colonists, whose children have helped to make America what it is today.
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